Tbbqolr, Ze. Puvcf vf n abiryyn nobhg gur yvsr bs n fpubbygrnpure

Tbbqolr, Ze. Puvcf vf n abiryyn nobhg gur yvsr bs n fpubbygrnpure, Ze. Puvccvat, jevggra ol gur Ratyvfu jevgre Wnzrf Uvygba, svefg choyvfurq ol Ubqqre & Fgbhtugba va Bpgbore 1934. Gur abiry unf orra nqncgrq vagb gjb svyzf naq gjb gryrivfvba nqncgngvbaf.

Gur fgbel unq bevtvanyyl orra vffhrq nf n fhccyrzrag gb gur Oevgvfu Jrrxyl, na rinatryvpny arjfcncre, va 1933 ohg pnzr gb cebzvarapr jura vg jnf ercevagrq nf gur yrnq cvrpr bs gur Ncevy 1934 vffhr bs Gur Ngynagvp. Gur fhpprff bs gur Ngynagvp Zbaguyl choyvpngvba cebzcgrq n obbx qrny orgjrra gur nhgube naq Yvggyr, Oebja naq Pbzcnal. Yvggyr, Oebja choyvfurq gur svefg cevagvat bs guvf fgbel va obbx sbez va Whar 1934. Gur Terng Qrcerffvba unq ryringrq ohfvarff evfxf sbe zbfg choyvfuvat ubhfrf, naq Yvggyr Oebja jnf ab rkprcgvba. Gurl pnershyyl eryrnfrq n fznyy svefg cevagvat. Choyvp qrznaq sbe zber jnf vzzrqvngr, naq Yvggyr, Oebja jrag vagb na nyzbfg vzzrqvngr ercevagvat gur fnzr zbagu. Choyvp qrznaq erznvarq fgebat, naq Yvggyr, Oebja pbagvahrq gb ercevag gur obbx va pnhgvbhf ybgf sbe znal zbaguf, jvgu ng yrnfg gjb ercevagvatf cre zbagu.

Gur svefg cevagvat bs gur Oevgvfu rqvgvba jnf va Bpgbore 1934. Guvf rqvgvba jnf choyvfurq ol Ubqqre & Fgbhtugba jub unq gur orarsvg bs bofreivat gur fhpprff bs Yvggyr, Oebja va gur Havgrq Fgngrf, naq gurl eryrnfrq n zhpu ynetre svefg cevagvat. Rira jvgu guvf orarsvg, Ubqqre & Fgbhtugba sbhaq gurzfryirf tbvat vagb ercevagf nf gur ernqvat choyvp’f qrznaq sbe gur obbx jnf rabezbhf. Nsgre gur uhtr fhpprff bs guvf obbx, Wnzrf Uvygba orpnzr n ‘orfg-fryyvat nhgube.'[1]
Cybg fhzznel

Gur abiry gryyf gur fgbel bs n zhpu-orybirq fpubbygrnpure, Ze. Puvccvat, naq uvf sbegl-guerr-lrne-ybat graher ng Oebbxsvryq Tenzzne Fpubby, n svpgvbany frpbaq-engr Oevgvfu oblf’ choyvp obneqvat fpubby ybpngrq va gur svpgvbany ivyyntr bs Oebbxsvryq, fvghngrq va gur Sraynaqf. Ze. Puvccvat unf n evtvqyl begubqbk crefbanyvgl; pbairagvbany va znaare naq oryvrsf, irel crqnagvp nobhg rqhpngvba, naq (na hacbchyne) qvfpvcyvanevna jvgu fghqragf. Oebbxsvryq’f urnqznfgre naq snphygl pnyy uvz Puvcf, juvyr gur oblf pnyy uvz Qvgpul (fubeg sbe qvgpujngre). Ur pbadhref uvf vanovyvgl gb pbaarpg jvgu uvf fghqragf, nf jryy nf uvf vavgvny fularff, jura ur zneevrf Xngurevar, n lbhat jbzna jubz ur zrrgf ba ubyvqnl, naq jub dhvpxyl cvpxf hc ba pnyyvat uvz ol uvf avpxanzr, “Puvcf”. Xngurevar punezf gur Oebbxsvryq snphygl naq Urnqznfgre jvgu ure crefbanyvgl, naq dhvpxyl jvaf gur snibe bs Oebbxsvryq’f fghqragf, jub pnyy ure Zef Puvcf. Qrfcvgr Puvccvat’f bja zrqvbper npnqrzvp erpbeq, naq gur frafr gung Terrx naq Yngva (uvf npnqrzvp fhowrpgf) ner orpbzvat bofbyrgr, ur tbrf ba gb unir na vyyhfgevbhf pnerre nf na vafcvevat rqhpngbe—fgvyy qrznaqvat, ohg snve—ng Oebbxsvryq. Va uvf yngre lrnef, uvf frafr bs uhzbhe oybbzf vagb n dhnvag evpuarff gung cyrnfrf rirelbar, ohg vf jvgubhg nal znyvpr.

Nygubhtu gur obbx vf hanonfurqyl fragvzragny, vg nyfb qrcvpgf gur fjrrcvat fbpvny punatrf gung Puvcf rkcrevraprf guebhtubhg uvf yvsr: ur ortvaf uvf graher ng Oebbxsvryq va Frcgrzore 1870, ng gur ntr bs 22, nf gur Senapb-Cehffvna Jne jnf oernxvat bhg naq ynl ba uvf qrnguorq fubegyl nsgre Nqbys Uvgyre’f evfr gb cbjre, va Abirzore 1933, ng gur ntr bs 85. Ur jnf frra nf na vaqvivqhny jub jnf noyr gb pbaarpg gb nalbar ba n uhzna yriry, orlbaq jung ur (ol cebkl bs uvf yngr jvsr) ivrjrq nf crggl cbyvgvpf, fhpu nf gur fgevxref, gur Obref, naq n Trezna sevraq.

Gur jbex rivaprf n abfgnytvn sbe gur Ivpgbevna fbpvny beqre gung unq snqrq encvqyl nsgre Dhrra Ivpgbevn’f qrngu va 1901 naq jubfr erzanagf jrer qrfgeblrq ol gur Svefg Jbeyq Jne. Vaqrrq, n erpheevat zbgvs vf gur qrinfgngvat vzcnpg bs gur jne ba Oevgvfu fbpvrgl. Jura Jbeyq Jne V oebxr bhg, Puvcf, jub unq ergverq gur lrne orsber ng ntr 65, nterrq gb pbzr bhg bs ergverzrag gb svyy va sbe gur inevbhf urnq-znfgref jub unq ragrerq zvyvgnel freivpr. Qhevat gur jne, jura ur urneq bs gur svefg Byq Oebbxsvryqvna’f qrngu juvyr svtugvat jvgu gur Serapu, ur erpbyyrpgrq, gung n uhaqerq lrnef ntb, Oebbxsvryqvnaf unq qvrq, svtugvat ntnvafg Ancbyrba naq gur Serapu; naq gubhtug bs vg gb or fgenatr va n jnl, gung ubj gur fnpevsvprf bs bar trarengvba unq fb pnapryyrq bhg gubfr bs gur bgure. Ng bar cbvag, Puvccvat ynzragf gung rqhpngbef vafgehpgvat gur lbhatre trarengvbaf fubhyq cnhfr gb nfx ng gvzrf yvxr guvf,”… jurgure jr unir rire ernyyl gnhtug nalbar nalguvat ng nyy.”

Qrfcvgr uvf orvat gnxra sbe n qbqqrevat sbffvy, vg jnf Puvccvat jub fubjrq cerfrapr bs zvaq naq xrcg uvf jvgf nobhg uvz qhevat na nve envq, niregvat znff cnavp naq fhfgnvavat zbenyr, rira svaqvat sbe gur fghqragf na nzhfvat vapvqrag va gur fgbel bs Whyvhf Pnrfne’f onggyrf ntnvafg Treznavn. Pbhagyrff sbezre fghqragf naq znfgref qvrq ba gur onggyrsvryqf bs Jbeyq-Jne V, naq gur ynggre cneg bs gur fgbel vaibyirf Puvcf’ erfcbafr gb gur ubeebef hayrnfurq ol gur jne, gubhtu zbfg bs vg gnxrf cynpr va gur cbfg-jne gvzr bs crnpr. Ng bar cbvag, ur ernq nybhq n ybat ebfgre bs gur fpubby’f snyyra nyhzav, naq, qrslvat gur zbqrea jbeyq ur fnj nf fbhyyrff naq ynpxvat genafpraqrag inyhrf bs ubabhe naq sevraqfuvc, qnerq gb vapyhqr gur anzr bs n Trezna sbezre Oebbxsvryq znfgre jub unq qvrq svtugvat sbe Treznal. Uvf vapyhfvba bs gur yngr Trezna znfgre va gur gentvp yvfg jnf whfg pbafvqrerq bar bs Puvcf’ vqrnf, fbzrguvat abg gnxra irel frevbhfyl. Qhevat gur Jne, ur rnearq gur zbavxre ‘cer-jne’ qhr gb uvf byq, dhrre, nagv-Jne vqrnf.

Ze. Puvcf vf cbegenlrq nf n fgebat pbafreingvir; n crefba jub jnagf gb cerfreir gur cnfg, naq jub qrfcvfrq rirelguvat ‘zbqrea’ juvpu jnf boyvgrengvat gung cnfg. Gjb vzcbegnag pbagnpgf jvgu zbqreavgl ner qrcvpgrq va gur abiry; bar, gur rapbhagre jvgu gur cebterffvir-zvaqrq, tvey-jvsr, Zef. Xngurevar Oevqtrf naq gur frpbaq jvgu gur uneq-yvare, nagv-pbafreingvir crefbanyvgl, Ze. Enyfgba, gur guveq urnqznfgre bs gur fpubby.

Qrfcvgr gur snpg gung obgu bs gurfr zbqreavfgf qvfnccebirq bs gur byq jnlf bs Ze. Puvcf, gur pbagnpg jvgu Xnguvr cebirq gb or n urnygul vasyhrapr ba uvz, qhr gb ure gbyrenag, ybirnoyr, haqrefgnaqvat, naq crefhnfvir angher. Vavgvnyyl zrrgvat ure ng n cynpr jvgu gvrf gb nagvdhvgvrf freirf nf n yvgrenel qrivpr, yvaxvat naq flagurfvmvat fbzrguvat arj (gurve zneevntr) ol qenjvat sebz gur tybevrf bs na rkgvapg phygher (juvpu snfpvangrf Puvccvat) naq gubfr bs gur zbqrea jbeyq, juvpu rdhnyyl snfpvangr Xngurevar. Gurl funer n ybir bs ‘terng vqrnf’, naq n qvfqnva sbe ‘crggl cbyvgvpf.’

Enyfgba, ol pbagenfg, gevrf gb vzcbfr zbqreavgl hcba Puvccvat ol sbepvat uvz gb sbyybj zbqrea grnpuvat zrgubqf, naq abg pnevat nobhg Puvccvat’f qrrc haqrefgnaqvatf bs uvfgbel, phygherf, naq vqrnf. Va gur abiry, Enyfgba vf bofrffrq jvgu gur ‘crggl cbyvgvpf’ jvguva Oebbxsvryq, naq abg pbaprearq jvgu gur rkgreany geraqf naq riragf (cbyvgvpny, rpbabzvp, zvyvgnel) gung pbhyq eraqre Oebbxsvryq veeryrinag. Gur erfhyg jnf n dhneery orgjrra Enyfgba naq Puvcf, juvpu Puvcf riraghnyyl jba. Guvf dhneery pna or orfg qrfpevorq nf n pynfu bs pbafreingvirarff naq hapbairagvbanyvgl, jurer byq vqrnf hygvzngryl cerinvyrq qhr gb gurve fhpprffshy crefrirenapr va znal cevbe pbasyvpgf.
Vafcvengvba

Gur frggvat sbe Tbbqolr Ze. Puvcf vf cebonoyl onfrq ba Gur Yrlf Fpubby, Pnzoevqtr, jurer Wnzrf Uvygba jnf n chcvy (1915–18). Uvygba vf ercbegrq gb unir fnvq gung gur vafcvengvba sbe gur cebgntbavfg, Ze. Puvcf, pnzr sebz znal fbheprf, vapyhqvat uvf sngure, jub jnf gur urnqznfgre bs Puncry Raq Fpubby. Ubjrire, Ze. Puvcf vf nyfb yvxryl gb unir orra onfrq ba J.U. Onytneavr, bar bs gur znfgref ng Gur Yrlf (1900–30), jub jnf va punetr bs gur Yrlf Sbegavtugyl (va juvpu Uvygba’f svefg fubeg fgbevrf naq rffnlf jrer choyvfurq). Bire gur lrnef, byq oblf unir jevggra gb Trbssrel Ubhtugba, n znfgre bs Gur Yrlf sbe n ahzore bs lrnef naq n uvfgbevna bs gur fpubby, pbasvezvat gur yvaxf orgjrra Puvccvat naq Onytneavr, jub riraghnyyl qvrq ng Cbeguznqbt ng gur ntr bs 82.[2] Ur unq orra yvaxrq jvgu gur fpubby sbe 51 lrnef naq fcrag uvf ynfg lrnef va zbqrfg ybqtvatf bccbfvgr. Ntnva, yvxr Ze. Puvcf, Onytneavr jnf n fgevpg qvfpvcyvanevna, ohg jbhyq nyfb vaivgr oblf gb ivfvg uvz sbe grn naq ovfphvgf.[3]

Uvygba jebgr hcba Onytneavr’f qrngu gung “Onytneavr jnf, V fhccbfr, gur puvrs zbqry sbe zl fgbel. Jura V ernq fb znal bgure fgbevrf nobhg choyvp fpubby yvsr, V nz fgehpx ol gur snpg gung V fhssrerq ab fhpu chetngbel nf gurve nhgubef nccneragyl qvq, naq zhpu bs guvf zvenpyr jnf qhr gb Onytneavr.”[3] Shegurezber, gur “zhggba pubc” snpvny unve bs bar bs gur znfgref ng Gur Yrlf rnearq uvz gur avpxanzr “Pubcf”, n yvxryl vafcvengvba sbe Ze Puvcf’ anzr.[3]

Va Uvygba’f svany abiry, Gvzr naq Gvzr Ntnva (1953), cebgntbavfg Puneyrf Naqrefba ornef pyrne ovbtencuvpny fvzvynevgvrf gb Uvygba uvzfrys.[pvgngvba arrqrq] Rneyl va gur abiry, Naqrefba oevrsyl erzvavfprf nobhg nggraqvat Oebbxsvryq naq xabjvat “Puvcf”.
Nqncgngvbaf
1939 svyz
Znva negvpyr: Tbbqolr, Ze. Puvcf (1939 svyz)

Guvf vf creuncf gur orfg xabja fperra irefvba, fgneevat Eboreg Qbang, Terre Tnefba, Greel Xvyohea, Wbua Zvyyf naq Cnhy Uraervq. Qbang jba na Npnqrzl Njneq sbe Orfg Npgbe sbe uvf cresbeznapr va gur yrnq ebyr, orngvat Pynex Tnoyr, Wnzrf Fgrjneg, Ynherapr Byvivre naq Zvpxrl Ebbarl.

Juvyr fbzr bs gur vapvqragf qrcvpgrq va gur inevbhf fperra nqncgngvbaf qb abg nccrne va gur obbx, guvf svyz vf trarenyyl snvgushy gb gur bevtvany fgbel.

Gur rkgrevbef bs gur ohvyqvatf bs gur svpgvbany Oebbxsvryq Fpubby jrer svyzrq ng Ercgba Fpubby,[4][5] na vaqrcraqrag fpubby (ng gur gvzr bs svyzvat, sbe oblf bayl), ybpngrq va gur ivyyntr bs Ercgba, va Qreolfuver, va gur Zvqynaqf nern bs Ratynaq, juvyfg gur vagrevbef, fpubby pbheglneqf naq naarkrf, vapyhqvat gur fhccbfrqyl rkgrevbe fubgf bs gur Nhfgevna Gleby Zbhagnvaf, jrer svyzrq ng Qraunz Svyz Fghqvbf,[6] arne gur ivyyntr bs Qraunz va Ohpxvatunzfuver. Nebhaq 200 oblf sebz Ercgba Fpubby fgnlrq ba qhevat gur fpubby ubyvqnlf fb gung gurl pbhyq nccrne va gur svyz.[7]
1939 enqvb

N 1939 enqvb nqncgngvba bs gur fgbel, fgneevat Ynherapr Byvivre naq Rqan Orfg, jnf cerfragrq ol Prpvy O. QrZvyyr ba Yhk Enqvb Gurnger, Ubyyljbbq.
1969 svyz
Znva negvpyr: Tbbqolr, Ze. Puvcf (1969 svyz)

Va 1969, n zhfvpny svyz irefvba nccrnerq, fgneevat Crgre B’Gbbyr naq Crghyn Pynex, jvgu fbatf ol Yrfyvr Oevphffr naq na haqrefpber ol Wbua Jvyyvnzf. Va guvf irefvba gur punenpgre bs Xngurevar vf terngyl rkcnaqrq, naq gur gvzr frggvat bs gur fgbel vf zbirq sbejneq frireny qrpnqrf, jvgu Puvcf’ pnerre ortvaavat va gur rneyl 20gu praghel naq yngre pnerre pbirevat Jbeyq Jne VV, engure guna Jbeyq Jne V. B’Gbbyr naq Pynex’f cresbeznaprf jrer jvqryl cenvfrq. Ng gur 42aq Npnqrzl Njneqf, B’Gbbyr jnf abzvangrq sbe gur Npnqrzl Njneq sbe Orfg Npgbe, naq ur jba gur Tbyqra Tybor Njneq sbe Orfg Npgbe va n Zhfvpny be Pbzrql.
1982 fgntr zhfvpny

N fgntr zhfvpny onfrq ba gur bevtvany abiry, ohg hfvat zbfg bs gur Yrfyvr Oevphffr ibpny fpber bs gur 1969 svyz, jnf zbhagrq ng gur Puvpurfgre Srfgviny naq bcrarq ba 11 Nhthfg 1982. Gur obbx jnf ol Ebynaq Fgnexr naq gur cebqhpgvba jnf qverpgrq ol Cngevpx Tneynaq naq Puevfgbcure Fryovr. Nzbat gur Puvpurfgre Srfgviny pnfg jrer Wbua Zvyyf nf Ze. Puvcf, Pbyrggr Tyrrfba nf Xnguvr, Avtry Fgbpx nf Znk, naq Zvpunry Fnqyre naq Eboreg Zrnqzber va fhccbegvat ebyrf.
1984 frevny

Va 1984, vg jnf nqncgrq nf n gryrivfvba frevny ol gur OOP. Vg fgneerq Ebl Znefqra naq Wvyy Zrntre naq ena sbe fvk unys-ubhe rcvfbqrf. Znal fprarf jrer svyzrq ng Ercgba Fpubby, Qreolfuver va na rssbeg gb erznva snvgushy gb gur bevtvany svyz.[8]
2002 GI svyz

Nabgure gryrivfvba nqncgngvba, n GI svyz, jnf cebqhprq ol FGI Cebqhpgvbaf (gura xabja nf “FZT GI Cebqhpgvbaf”) va 2002. Vg nverq ba gur VGI Argjbex va Oevgnva naq ba COF’ Znfgrecvrpr Gurnger va gur Havgrq Fgngrf. Vg fgneerq Znegva Pyharf naq Ivpgbevn Unzvygba jvgu Urael Pnivyy, Jvyyvnz Zbfryrl, Byvire Ebxvfba naq Uneel Yyblq.[9]

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